FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions Pools and Spa Baths, What
Are The Benefits Of Using Ozone In Swimming Pools?
Ozone is used in pools to improve the quality of the water. It does this
by reducing the amount of chemicals required, eliminating the unpleasant
side effects of these chemicals, and improving the performance of the
filtration equipment. The result will be a pool that is; brilliantly
clear, much nicer to swim in, safer and easier to look after.
a powerful sanitizer, produced on site continuously
improves water quality
reduces unpleasant chemical odours
kinder to bathers, kinder to equipment
more benefits? - Yes. Improved Water Quality:
characteristic of an Ozone treated pool is the outstanding water clarity.
This is the result of the ability of Ozone to combine small insoluble
particles that would normally pass through a filter, into larger particles
that can be effectively trapped by the filter. This process is called
flocculation, and Ozone is a very good flocculent. The result is a crystal
clear pool with a clarity that is unmatched.
The water is softer.
Reduces total dissolved solids (TDS) by coagulating particles.
Ozone has neutral pH (that means it does not affect the pH of the pool).
Ozone is not pH dependent (that is it is effective regardless of the
produces no undesirable residuals; no chloramine build-up.
irritation to the eyes, nasal passages or throat.
more dried out skin, bleached hair or faded swimwear.
neutralises body oils, soaps and their suds.
The by-products of Ozone are heat, filterable solids and pure oxygen.
Reduces chemical consumption significantly (amount depends on Ozone
Ozone instantly turns combined chlorine (if used together) into 'free-
available' chlorine, making it 100% useable.
Reduces TDS, so you don't have to drain the pool, saving money on water
costs (& chemical costs).
Prolongs the life of the equipment by reducing calcium and scale
Weekly, rather than every other day chemical check.
Reduce the need to store large quantities of toxic chemicals which break
down, becoming ineffective in storage and risk spillage or inadvertent
overdosing possible - no financial waste.
Pool requires fewer cleanings.
Less calcium build up on plaster.
Ozone damage my pool equipment?
contrary, as Ozone can only be added to the water at the rate it is
generated, it is not possible to 'overdose' as can happen with manually
added chemicals. Once Ozone is dissolved in the water, it is not
considered to be any more aggressive than any other oxidising chemical.
With the world-wide trend towards the increased use of Ozone, most
equipment manufacturers are manufacturing their products with
'Ozone-resistant' materials, so few problems need be expected. Avoid the
use however of exposing natural rubber or nylon materials to high levels
of dissolved Ozone.
I still have to use chemicals in the pool? Yes.
water must still be 'balanced' as normal, and in most cases, a residual
sanitizer such as bromine is used.
not just use Chlorine?
Viruses and bacteria can build up a tolerance to chlorine and exist in
even well chlorinated pools. Also the build up of total dissolved solids
in pool (TDS) or incorrect pH can dramatically reduce the effectiveness of
chlorine. (At a pH of 8.0, the relative strength of chlorine can be as
little as 30% of the strength at a pH of 7.0.) Nothing however can build
up a resistance to Ozone and the presence of a high TDS or incorrect pH
will not affect its oxidising ability.
use of Ozone therefore ensures a much safer pool under all conditions.
Will my pool be harder to look after? No.
Normally it is the addition of chemicals that unsettle the chemical
balance of the pool water. When the chemical additions are reduced through
the use of Ozone, the pool is able to settle down, and less effort (and
chemicals) is required to maintain correct water balance.
Will the Ozone stop my pool going green?
not necessarily, but it is much less likely to happen. If a pool goes
green it almost always means that conditions have not been right for some
period of time, and a number of things could have caused the problem. If
this happens, it is because the chemicals are not able to control the pool
correctly. The conditions or use of the pool may have changed, or the
correct chemicals are perhaps not being applied. Either way, provided the
Ozone is still being applied, the solution is to sort out the problem with
other words, if the Ozone is working, forget it is there, and treat the
pool just as you would any other 'chlorine' or 'bromine' pool
What happens if something goes wrong with the Ozone Generator?
for any reason the Ozone equipment stops working, or it comes time to
service the equipment, simply increase the application of the chemicals
until the Ozone is back in service.
long should I run the filter pump?
The job of the filter in a pool is to remove suspended matter from the
water. Remember: Adequate filtration is essential in any pool. Your pool
will never look good without sufficient filtration.
You cannot 'over-filter' your pool.
Insufficient filtration will greatly affect the workload of the Ozone &
Ozone will be going in to your pool all the time the filter is running.
Don't be afraid to extend the running time of the pump, especially in
the peak of
the 'pool season'. Your Ozone equipment has the ability to produce a
sanitizer for your pool, 24 hours a day, and the small extra cost of the
electricity may well be compensated for by the savings in chemicals. Up
to 80% of the water treatment of your pool is done by the filter, so
don't be afraid to use it.
|FAQ Pools and Spas - in
1) What is ozone?
Ozone is a highly reactive and unstable form of oxygen. Ozone is made up of
three oxygen atoms together, written as O3. It is called activated
tri-atomic oxygen. It is a gas and is denser than air. Ozone is the second
most powerful sterilant in the world and its function is to destroy
bacteria, viruses and odors. Ozone is nature's way of purifying the air we
breathe. It is the distinctive “electric” odour smelled during and after
thunderstorms. Ozone derives from the Greek word ozein, which means to
smell. If natural ozone ceased to exist, life on this planet would also
cease to exist.
2) Is ozone a new technology?
Ozone has been around as long as oxygen, sunshine and lightning. It was
discovered and isolated in 1840 by C. F. Schonbeinwho noticed a unique odour
during electrical sparking and electrolysis experiments. He realized that
the odour was the same one he observed after a lightning flash. In 1886 de
Meritens of France conducted the first experiments using this unique gas as
a disinfectant. He proved that even minute amounts of ozonized air would
sterilize polluted water. A few years later in 1891, the German scientist
Frolich reported the bactericidal properties of ozone from pilot plant tests
conducted at a drinking water treatment plant in Martinkenfeld, Germany. In
1893, the first drinking water treatment plant to employ ozone was built in
Oudshoorn in the Netherlands. In 1906, the first large-scale water treatment
facility built specifically to use ozone as a disinfectant was completed. By
1977, there were 1039 ozone drinking water treatment plants in Europe. Today
there are more than 2000 water treatment plants worldwide using ozone. Ozone
has been used in swimming pools and spas in France, Germany, Netherlands,
and other European countries since the early 1950's and in the United States
since about 1975.
3) How is Ozone Made?
Ozone can be produced artificially according the same principle as it occurs
in nature, which means by UV light (ozone layer) or via corona-discharge
(high voltages, thunderstorm). In both methods the connection between the
oxygen molecules is broken up. Consequently oxygen radicals are produced,
which connect with the oxygen molecule to O3 (ozone). For the production of
ozone, corona discharge is used more because of the greater advantages of
this method. Advantages are the lower costs for ozone production (more
cost-efficient) and the greater durability of the system. For the feed inlet
ambient air can be used as well as pure oxygen. For pure oxygen, oxygen
generators can be used to concentrate oxygen out of air. When pure oxygen is
used a higher concentration of ozone can be produced.
4) How does ozone work?
Ozone operates according the principle of oxidation. Ozone is faster than
chlorine at killing bacteria because chlorine needs to diffuse through the
cell wall and disrupt the bacteria's metabolism. Ozone, however, rips open
the cell wall from the outside, causing the cell's contents to fall apart.
This process is called cell lysing. With ozone, after destruction of the
cell, all that is left is carbon dioxide, cell debris and water. As the
ozone oxidizes material, it gets used up. Once it has done its job of
oxidation, ozone reverts back to oxygen (O2). This additional oxygen in the
water makes it taste good, smell good and gives it a sparkle. There are no
toxic or hazardous byproducts.
5) What will Ozone Destroy?
Ozone kills bacteria, viruses, spores, mold, mildew, fungi, amoeba and
cysts. Various factors play a role in effectiveness of ozone in the removal
of contaminants, such as the amount of ozone, the concentration of ozone,
and the contact time of ozone with the organism. Ozone will not usually
eliminate all algae and hence an additional sanitizer must be added to the
water to kill algae and provide protection during the time the ozone
generator is not on.
6) Is Ozone an Oxidizer?
The easy answer is Yes. Ozone oxidizes at a rate of more than 3000 times
that of chlorine, and is twice as powerful. Ozone will also oxidize metals
such as iron and manganese, as well as the bonds of many colour-producing
contaminants like decaying leaves and grass. Once the bond is broken, the
7) What are the benefits of using ozone?
Bacteria kill rate is up to three thousand times faster
50% stronger oxidizer than chlorine
Reduces traditional chemical use between 60% - 90%
Reduce handling and storage of unsafe chemicals
Reduce constant purchasing of harmful chemicals
Eliminate red, irritated eyes and dry, itchy skin
Eliminate costly replacement of faded swimwear
Remove unpleasant chlorine / chloramine odours
No adverse health or environmental effects
Improvement of the filter and coagulant capacities = reduction of coagulant
use & less backwashing
Water consumption can be decreased, because of an increase in water quality
8) Can I stop using Bromine?
You will definitely reduce your chemical usage in your pool up to 90%
depending on weather conditions and pool characteristics. Ozone provides
better water quality and oxidizes many contaminants that bromine cannot.
However, Ozone only lasts in pool water for a short period of time (15-30
minutes) therefore in order to provide lasting protection during times when
ozone is not being injected, to control algae and to oxidize ammonia and
swimmer waste, you must maintain a small residual of bromine (1.0 to 2.0 ppm
of bromine) in the water. The longer the ozone system operates, the less
bromine you will have to use to maintain water quality. Ozone will kill
algae at the point of injection, not algae that are growing on the pool
walls. Recommended Dosage for Sodium Bromide is 20g per 1000 Litres of water
every 6 months.
9) How does ozone get into the water?
Ozone is a gas and it is only slightly soluble in water. It must be
thoroughly dissolved in water so that the chemical reactions with
contaminants can take place. The most common way in swimming pools is with a
venturi injector, which is a device a 100mm in length with each end the same
diameter (40/50mm) as the pool plumbing line. A section of pool piping is
removed, and a venturi injector is installed. The injector’s diameter is
smaller in the middle, similar to squeezing or pinching a hose. The water
travelling into the injector begins to move faster. In the middle of the
injector there is a small hole. As water is pumped through the plumbing and
past the hole, a vacuum is created. The amount of vacuum is dependent on the
amount of water flow through the injector – more water equals more vacuum.
If a small flexible hose or tube is attached to this small hole, a liquid or
gas can be drawn into the injector and mixed into the water.The goal is to
make the smallest bubbles possible and to keep the bubbles in contact with
the water for as long as possible. The ozone that does not get dissolved
will kill or oxidise anything in the water.
10) How long will ozone last in my pool?
For the purification of water and air, it’s needed to produce ozone on-site.
Because of its short half-life, ozone will decay soon when produced. The
half life of ozone in water is about 30 minutes, which means that every half
hour the ozone concentration will be reduced to half its initial
concentration. For example, when you have 8 g/l, the concentration reduces
every 30 minutes as follows: 8; 4; 2; 1; etc. In practice the half-life is
shorter because a lot of factors can influence the half-life. Factors are
temperature, pH, concentration and concentration and sort solutes. Because
ozone reacts with all kinds of components, the concentration of ozone will
reduce quickly. When most of the components are oxidized, the residual ozone
will remain, and the concentration of ozone will reduce.
11) Will the temperature or humidity of the air or
water affect ozone?
The temperature and humidity of the air will directly impact on the
concentration of ozone gas produced. The more humid and the hotter the air,
the less concentrated the ozone produced will be. Likewise the temperature
of the water has a similar effect, the cooler the water the ozone is
injected into, the more effective the ozone will be at removing
contaminants! Heated pools require 10-15% more ozone than traditional pools.
12) Is ozone safe?
Ozone has been documented for over a century now, so quite a lot is known
about it. OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Agency has stipulated that
the safe allowable level of residual ozone is .08 ppm. This is supposedly
based upon the historical safety of ozone. Note that this permissible level
is for continuous exposure throughout an entire 8 hour day for 5 days a
week. No Federal or State agency can agree an what the maximum level of
ozone exposure should be, so there is no standardization in maximum
permissible ozone levels. That signifies these numbers are arbitrary,
meaning they are not really sure of what a maximum sustainable ozone level
should be. Since excess ozone gives off an unmistakable strong "bleach like"
odor, one always know if too much is present in the air. In other words
before ozone could possibly have any unsafe effects, a person would be
greatly offended by it's bleach like odor. Ozone is safe to use in occupied
areas because we notice it's unpleasant odor at very low levels and then
have the ability to turn it down. Ozone generators, when used correctly will
not exceed government guidelines for continuous safe exposure. Precautions
should be taken, however, because the nose can loose it's ability to sense
the ozone after a sustained period of time. If one senses a headache or sore
through it may mean the ozone level is too high. The fact remains if the
ozone level is much higher than is recommended to be consider safe, it would
become so pungent that anyone could sense it. Ozone does this by becoming so
offensive at high levels that we would not be able to stay in the
environment for more than a very short period. This is much like what would
happen if we entered a smoke filled room. No one has ever claimed a worker's
related illness resulting from ozone exposure
13) Is ozone safe for my pool equipment?
Most pool systems these days come supplied with plumbing that is
ozone-resistant e.g.. PVC piping. However, Ozone gas can corrode metal and
other materials such as nylon and rubber. Care must be taken to check that
all plumbing and piping between the injection point ( Venturi Injector ) and
the point of entry to the pool are made of ozone-resistant materials. All
our systems are supplied with ozone-resistant accessories
14) Is ozone safe for swimmers?
Ozone dissolved in the water is pH neutral so the pH will not harm equipment
or people. The amount of ozone added to the water is enough to kill
bacteria, virus, cysts, mold and spores, but is safe and non-toxic to humans
and pets - no red, irritated eyes and dry, itchy skin. When properly
installed and plumbed all of the ozone generated will be dissolved in the
water or used up oxidizing impurities in your water.
15) Does ozone affect water balance?
Ozone has a neutral pH (about 7.0) so it does not affect pH. Ozone has no
calcium, no alkalinity, and no dissolved solids. Therefore, ozone does not
affect water balance. It does remove trace amounts of metals such as iron or
copper by oxidising them to their highest oxidation state. They will then
precipitate out of the water and be trapped by your filter.
16) Can I run my pump and filter for fewer hours?
Ozone is only injected into your water when the pump is running. The longer
you run the ozone generator (and your pump and filter), the better your
resultant water quality will be and thereby reducing the need for residual
chemicals. During summer / swimming season you should run your ozone
generator, pump and filter a minimum of 12 hours each day. We recommend that
you run your pump for 24hrs a day in summer. Up to 80% of the water
treatment is done by your filter, so don't be afraid to use it. The extra
electricity cost will be compensated by the savings on costly chemicals.
17) Will there be a visible change to my water?
Yes! When ozone is first introduced into your pool water and during the
first 72 hours, your pool water may get cloudy. Ozone will begin to oxidise
all of those particles and metals that your present sanitizer would
otherwise leave in your pool. When these particles are oxidized, they form
visible particles that are heavier than water and precipitate. Also, there
will be pieces or fragments of the cells that ozone has destroyed. So the
cloudiness that you may see is oxidized material, pieces and fragments of
cells, and metal precipitates. Some of the dirt and debris in the water is
too small to be trapped by the filter. These small-sized dirt particles have
a weak electrical charge or pole. Because all the dirt particles have a
negative charge, they repel each other like two magnets. They are so small
that they are not affected by gravity and therefore won't settle out either.
Ozone neutralizes these charges, which allows the particles to combine into
large enough particles to be trapped by the filter. Once these particles are
oxidized, neutralized and filtered, the water will have a definite "clarity
and sparkle" that you may not have experienced before. In addition, after
the ozone does its work, it reverts back to oxygen. This added oxygen will
make the water look, feel and even taste better.
18) How must I prepare my pool before I install an
Adjust total alkalinity with Hydrochloric acid or Sodium Bicarbonate
Adjust pH 7.2 to 7.8 (HCL acid to lower and Sodium Bicarbonate to increase )
Shock treat with Hydrogen Peroxide 35% ( 100mL / 1000 Litres pool water )
Ozone is used as primary Sanitizer and Sodium Bromide as secondary /
Sodium Bromide should test between 1-2 ppm (Dosage: 20g per 1000 Litres of
water every 6 months)
19) What special maintenance does ozone require?
Shock treat with Hydrogen peroxide
Maintain total alkalinity with Hydrochloric acid or Sodium Bicarbonate
Maintain pH 7.2 to 7.8 (HCL acid to lower and Sodium Bicarbonate to increase
Shock treat with Hydrogen Peroxide 35% ( 100mL / 1000 Litres pool water )
Keep pool clear of leaves and debris
Check and clean basket daily. Backwash regularly.
Use Algaecide if required – consult supplier for ozone compatible type
20) What special maintenance does an ozone generator
Check Non-return valve for signs of water returning into the tube to the
ozone generator - replace if necessary.
Check the silicone tube for deterioration - replace if necessary
Check internal air filter for blockage
Check Red Neon is glowing when pump is running (Ozone Generator must have
power switch on)
Check that small, fine bubbles are coming from pool return jet
Make sure no debris or dirt is blocking fan guards
Use the fingertip test on the air inlet port to the ozone generator to check
that suction is still present and Venturi injector is working correctly
21) How do I know if there is enough ozone for proper
This can be a difficult question to answer. Experts have not been able to
develop a minimum or maximum level for ozone in swimming pool water because
of the multiple variables involved such as air temperature, water
temperature, humidity and bather load. Pool owners who have been using
chlorine of bromine for a few seasons know how much sanitizer they use in a
season or year. Installing an ozone generator in these pools has resulted in
a significant reduction in the amount of chemical sanitizer used. The longer
the ozone operates each day, the greater the reduction in chemical
sanitizers. Pool owners have had reductions in sanitizer use of 50 to 90%.
Your savings may vary based on pool usage factors. The MightyZone selected
for your pool has been arrived at by field tests, best available information
from other industries like drinking water, water-cooling towers and
extensive lab testing. Ozone is not sold on the basis of being less
expensive than other sanitizers such as chlorine and bromine are. Its value
is in smoothness and sparkle to the pool water, elimination of the dry,
itchy skin that chemicals can produce burning red eyes and bleached bathing
suits. Other important advantages include reduced pool maintenance and
reduced exposure to toxic chemicals in storing, handling and swimming.
22) Will my ozone generator help the ozone layer?
Ozone from a swimming pool ozone system will not add anything to the
atmosphere or the ozone layer. When injected into the water properly, no
ozone escapes into the atmosphere. Even if it does get into our atmosphere,
it is like a drop in the ocean. Also, the ozone would have to be transported
9 to 18 miles up. The ozone layer that you may have heard about is a layer
of mostly oxygen and ozone that is located in the lower stratosphere between
altitudes of 9 and 18 miles. This ozone results almost entirely from oxygen
(O2) splitting apart into two atoms of oxygen (O) by solar ultraviolet
radiation (the sun's UV rays) and then combining with molecular oxygen (O2)
to form ozone (O3). Atmospheric ozone plays a critical role for the earth by
absorbing the ultraviolet radiation from the sun with a wavelength of
between 240 and 320 nanometers (nm), which would otherwise be transmitted to
the Earth's surface. This radiation is responsible for sunburn to human
skin. In addition, the incidence of skin cancer has been statistically
correlated with UV light intensities of 290 to 320 nm.