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Related Useful Links
Wastewater Watch Newsletter
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Drinking Water Bottle Filler, Potable Water Bottling.
Rinsing, Capping, Labelling
Complete System for Filling and Refilling
Drinking Water Bottles for Commercial Use.
Our Turnkey ('Ready to Run') System:
- SAND FILTRATION
A 12 micron particle size filters the water through sand removing dirt, sludge
and other undissolved solids.
- ELEMENT FILTRATION
Then a 5 micron element filter removing all undissolved solids down to 5
micron, and a final element filter then removes all undissolved solids further
down to to 1 micron.
This type of system produces one of the purest forms of water available,
removing 99% of all contaminants
from water leaving behind almost only water molecules;
rejecting all contaminants including bacteria
and sodium. (Membrane pore size is 0.001 micron).
- CARBON FILTRATION
Carbon filtration removes organic chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, chlorine
and it's derivative the carcinogenic Trihalomethanes from water. Odours and
unpleasant flavours are removed and the water tastes clean.
The ultraviolet is the next pathogen control phase which sterilizes the water
Ozone is the final polishing phase and ensures no survival of pathogens
bacteria viruses. The ozone treatment is essential for water bottling because
it plays a multiple, beneficial role in the production of bottled water and
assures a good quality, storage stable product. Ozone is the most powerful,
chemical disinfectant available. It disinfects them all: the water, the
bottle, the bottling equipment, the sealed cap of the bottle and any air borne
micro organisms in the air space above the water. Furthermore, it improves,
taste, eliminates odour and oxidizes undesirable organic and inorganic
materials that might be present in the source water. Then, once ozone has done
its job, it decomposes to harmless oxygen. Should you wish for an ideal
disinfectant for bottled water, you could not dream of a better one than
Your Fully treated OZONATED WATER is now
ready for bottling/ storage/drinking.
Price of System:
There are no hidden costs or 'locked in' contracts, franchise complexities and
We do hope you'll optionally service your equipment with us and replace
filters/ consumables through us.
We can also supply a variety of plastic bottles shapes and sizes for you,
labelled or not.
an example of 'compact'
complete water purification Reverse Osmosis with prefiltration, ultraviolet and
ozonation. For Hand/Tap ap bottle filling - Production 5625 litre/day. Location Bloemfontein City.
(Emily Hobhouse , off Dan Pienaar Drive)
Cost: Pre-filtration skid and RO including
UV & Ozone @ +/- R 160 000 (Using your own tanks & piping)
If you're in the Bloemfontein area pop in
and try some top quality
(pharmaceutical quality) drinking water -
Chilled - produced by 'RO3'
All our equipment is locally made and serviced - we also
export our ozone equipment, globally.
Here's a sample of shapes in the 500ml size to choose from:
See Below for Blowing, Filling, Bottling
and Labelling Systems
More on Reverse Osmosis RO Water Treatment.
Contaminant Rejection by
More on Ozone Water Treatment.
The ozone treatment enhances the water quality of most
drinking water in general. However, it is a key and essential treatment for the
production of safe, high quality, good tasting, aesthetically pleasing and
storage stable bottled water that the consumers have come to expect. The
development and adaptation of ozone treatment in the 1970’s resolved the
troublesome and sometimes embarrassing problems with disinfection and storage
stability and set the water bottling industry onto its decades long rapid double
digit growth pattern. By the year 2001, the annual sales of bottled water
exceeded 5.5 billion gallons and surpassed $ 6 billion dollars in the US. A
discussion of the biological and chemical processes involved in the treatment
are presented below.
Ozone treatment is the most frequently used disinfection process in water
bottling today. With the application of a single ozone treatment step, the water
bottler can disinfect the water, the bottling equipment, the bottle, the air
above the water and the sealed cap of the bottle, thereby provide a most
effective barrier to microbiological contamination for the protection and
benefit of the consumer. These are the reasons why most water bottlers rely on
ozone treatment to provide a safe, good tasting, aesthetically pleasing and
storage stable product.
As the ozone treatment became a well accepted, routine part of the water
bottling process, many of its other benefits beyond the disinfection have become
taken for granted and nearly forgotten. Some water bottlers may not even realize
today that the use of ozone also provides benefits, such as, improved taste,
elimination of odour, and long 2 years storage stability. These benefits have
improved their product substantially making it a good tasting and safe. These
are the product quality features that the costumers have grown to expect and
Reactions of Ozone
Once the ozone is dissolved in the water, it undergoes three
simultaneous reactions. They are discussed below in detail.
1. Disinfection: The disinfection process treats the water against bacteria,
viruses and parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium. While many more
details are available in the literature (1,3), it is sufficient to say here that
ozone is a highly effective, general, broad-spectrum disinfectant. It is
considered to be the most effective chemical disinfectant commonly available
against all the above mentioned microorganisms. See Table III. The extent of the
disinfection can be defined in terms of the Ct value. The Ct value is the
product of dissolved ozone concentration (in mg/l) and disinfection time (in
minutes). For the disinfection effect of ozone see Tables III, IV and V.
The relative disinfection effects, that is the values of the Specific
Coefficient of Lethality of four disinfectants are shown in Table III on four
microorganisms. The data in Table III indicate that ozone is 5-25 times more
effective against bacteria, viruses, spores and cysts than the various chlorine
type disinfectants, such as, hypochlorons acid, hypochlorite, or chloramine.
The Ct values proposed by the EPA for the disinfection of Giardia are displayed
in Table IV. These data indicate the recommended Ct. values for the various
degrees of inactivation under six temperature conditions.
The required Ct. values for 99% inactivation of six different microorganisms are
summarized in Table V. The data in Table V provide the recommended Ct values for
the selected group of four different disinfectants including ozone. In general,
the disinfection by ozone requires significantly lower Ct. values than by the
other three disinfectants covered. They are: chlorine, chloramines or chlorine
dioxide. This fact is
due to the substantially more powerful disinfection effect of ozone.
2. Chemical Oxidation: Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is very effective
in water treatment against essentially all taste and odour causing organic
materials and oxidizable inorganics like iron, manganese and sulphide ion.
Again, these reactions have been studied in great detail and are reported on in
the literature. (4). The required ozone concentrations and reaction times are
dependent on the type and concentration of the oxidizable pollutants present in
the water and on the water quality. They should be determined experimentally in
a treatability study.
3. Decomposition: ozone is an unstable compound under room temperature and near
room temperature conditions and decomposes rapidly to oxygen. The decomposition
rate is influenced primarily by water temperature and pH. The half-life of ozone
at 20oC and pH 7.0 is typically 24 minutes in potable water. See Figure 4. In
most cases there is ample time available for the ozone decomposition to take
place before the bottled water is delivered to the consumer. Typically, 5-10 hrs
should be sufficient. More specifically, the decomposition rate is dependant on
pH, temperature and the type and concentration of inorganic salts present in the
Tables Ozone Inactivation of Micro organisms
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the regulatory and
oversight responsibility over the bottled water in the USA. Title 21 of the Code
of Federal Regulations (CFR) under Section of Part 165 outlines the required
physical, chemical, radiological and microbiological parameters for bottled
water (5). The FDA automatically adopts the applicable improvements and changes
in drinking water quality requirements set by the EPA. The IBWA standards are
based on FDA and EPA regulations.
The FDA has granted GRAS status for ozone disinfection in November 1982.
According to the FDA: “a substance added to the food (and water is a food) may
be marketed without a regulation if it is one which is considered as
Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by experts qualified by scientific training
and experience to evaluate safety”. Thus, the FDA classified ozone as Generally
Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) for use as a disinfectant for bottled water up to a
residual dissolved ozone concentration of 0.4 mg/l.
Furthermore, the FDA has recognized ozone treatment to be a Good Manufacturing
Practice (GMP) for the bottled water industry. This regulation appears in Code
21 of Federal Regulations, Section 129.80 d.4 and first appeared in the Federal
Register 11566, 12 March 1975. The minimum ozone treatment for GMP is “0.1 part
per million (0.1 mg/l) ozone in water solution in an enclosed systems for at
least 5 minutes.
Blow Mould, Fill, Bottle and Label
3 -In- 1 Bottling, Capping and Filling
1) GPK12-12-6 Automatic washing, filling, capping 3-in-1
monoblock liquid filling machine
Based on 500ml
The speed can be adjustable
Larger unit, Bottle, Fill and Cap, Close
Blow Moulder Systems:
Double Bottle Blowing
Blow Moulder Station
10 000 Litre per Hour Reverse Osmosis
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