Swine Flu: How to
Reduce Your Risk
The recently emerged swine flu is a mutation of
the flu virus, created from a mix of bird flu, swine flu and human flu
strains. To date, the virus has infected hundreds of people in Mexico,
where it appears to have originated and continues to spread rapidly
across the globe. Officials in the U.S. and around the world continue to
confirm cases daily and as a precautionary measure, governments in
United States, Canada and the European Union have advised people to
avoid all non-essential travel to Mexico. The virus is spread between
humans. However, the full extent of its threat is still unclear.
Influenza is always serious – each year, in the United States, seasonal
influenza results, on average, in an estimated 36,000 dying from
flu-related causes. This swine outbreak certainly poses the potential to
be at least as serious as seasonal flu if not more so. Because this is a
new virus, most people will not have immunity to it and so illness may
be more severe and widespread as a result.
The potential for the swine flu to become a global pandemic underscores
the need for individuals to work towards reducing its spread. “By
taking steps to prevent the spread of flu viruses, each of us can help
protect the health of our families, our friends and our communities,”
says Chris Wiant, Chair of the Water Quality & Health Council. “Reducing
risks can be as simple as washing your hands, covering your mouth and
nose when coughing or sneezing, and disinfecting household surfaces with
chlorine bleach solution.”
The Water Quality & Health Councils offers information on
healthy practices to reduce risks including:
- Take simple precautions. Maintain a healthy
lifestyle, get a flu shot and stay informed.
- Practice good hygiene. Make a habit of frequent hand washing and
use sanitizers when hand washing isn’t convenient. Avoid touching or
rubbing of one’s nose and mouth to one’s hands and minimal
person-to-person contact such as hand shaking and hugging are all
helpful to limit the spread of virus.
- Take extra precautions when someone in the home is sick with the
flu. Clean and disinfect household surfaces such as telephones, door
knobs and hand rails. Do not share computers, pens, papers, clothes,
bedding, food or eating utensils with those who are ill. Wash hands
prior to and immediately after contact with a sick person. Thoroughly
dry hands with a paper towel and use it to turn off the faucet, then
dispose of it.
- When in public, avoid touching hand rails on escalators, stairways
door knobs or door pulls in public buildings or in public
transportation. These sites readily become contaminated and are
contacted by very large numbers of people.
- If you are sick, stay at home and avoid public settings.
Did You Know....?
of the water on earth is in the oceans
• Only 3%
of the water on earth is freshwater
• About 2.4%
of the water on earth is permanently
frozen in glaciers and at the polar ice caps
• About 1/2 of 1 %
of the water on earth is groundwater
• Only about 1/100 of 1%
of the water on earth is in the rivers and lakes
• It takes 39,090 gallons
of water to make a new car, including the tires
• Over 17,000,000 houses
in the US use private wells for their drinking water supply
• A person can live about a month
without food, but can live only
about 1 week without water
Potential Spread of
MRSA 'Super Bug' Found in Beach Sand
The MRSA “superbug” which is commonly
found in hospitals is increasingly appearing at beaches, both in ocean
water and sand. Research conducted by Dr. Lisa Plano of the University
of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine and presented at the American
Association for the Advancement of Science warns that people who do not
shower before and after swimming in the ocean could potentially be at
risk of attracting the antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the
strain of bacteria that can cause staph infections.
While scientists know that staph can spread in water, Plano’s research
shows for the first time that MRSA can be found at the beach both in sea
water and potentially on sand. Data from the research shows that it is
plausible that many of the MRSA cases found at the beach originate
elsewhere on people’s skin and then are spread while swimming and
sunbathing. Plano also notes that this problem does not exist in
municipal and most private pools if appropriate chlorine levels are
Dr. Plano admits there is a tremendous amount of work that still needs
to be done to understand the threat of exposure to staph at the beach,
but people should be aware of the potential risks. Showering before and
after going in the water and avoiding the beach if you have an open
wound are recommendations to enjoy time at the beach.
To read the full article, please visit:
International Ozone Association
(see Useful Links IO3A
emblem on left panel)
Ozone Kills MRSA “Super
Scottsdale, AZ -- Sanitizing towels, linens, and surfaces with ozonated
water has been shown to be extremely effective in the reduction of
Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria and its more drug-resistant and
harder to treat strain known as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA), which is spreading rapidly in the US population.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) just reported in
the Journal of the American Medical Association that in 2005, 94,000
people contracted serious, or invasive, staph infections and 19,000 of
them died; rates three times the previous estimates.
Both staph and MRSA can cause more-serious skin infections or they can
lead to pneumonia, or infections of the bloodstream, ear, urinary tract,
or the lining of the brain.
MRSA had nearly always been connected to health care but is now
spreading into communities such as schools, athletic facilities, health
clubs and hospitality industries at about 15 percent of MRSA cases in
the United States per the CDC report.
CDC recommendations for preventing infections in the general public
focus on good hygiene including regular and rigorous hand washing,
showering, and not sharing towels, razors and other potentially
contaminated items/surfaces with others. CDC advises that you always
practice good hygiene, for example in health clubs, use a barrier such
as clothing or a towel between your skin and shared equipment.
The CDC also recommend wiping down frequently contacted surfaces such as
phones, stair banisters, desk tops, key boards, faucets, tubs, sinks,
floors, toilets and shower stall surfaces before and after use.
Research and real world
application studies conducted by members of the International Ozone
Association (IOA), their customers and testing agencies have shown
ambient temperature wash of laundry and surfaces with ozonated water to
be effective at reducing pathogenic organisms including Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus) bacteria and MRSA by up to 99.999999%.
In a 2006 paper presented at the International Ozone Association
Conference in Arlington Texas, “Ozone in the Laundry Industry --
Practical Experiences in the United Kingdom”, Cardis, et. al. reported
on comparative testing conducted by Microsearch Laboratories (UK)
confirming that low temperature ozone wash is extremely effective at
inactivating organisms typically found on garments, towels and linens
from healthcare facilities”.
Ozone currently protects public
health in drinking water and wastewater treatment and is proving to be a
safe and effective antimicrobial, sanitizer and disinfectant in numerous
commercial and industrial applications.
Hand-washing Program Cuts MRSA
Infections and Demonstrates Change in Health Worker Compliance
It is generally recognized that stringent adherence to hand-washing is
one of the most effective methods to reduce the transmission of
infection in a hospital setting. The rise of infections from the
bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, has
resulted in increased media attention and has brought the issue of
hygiene compliance in a hospital setting under review.
USA Weekend recently highlighted a study conducted by the Journal of
Clinical Outcomes Management that examined the effectiveness of hand
hygiene in preventing the transmission of MRSA. The Infection Control
Department in partnership with the Patient Safety Committee initiated
the Hand Hygiene Program at St. Joseph’s Medical Center in Maryland with
a goal of achieving greater than 90 percent compliance with hand
hygiene. A strict protocol was implemented to remind employees and
physicians about washing and cleaning hands. Hand hygiene teams or hand
hygiene ‘champions’ were placed throughout the hospital to remind staff
of the importance of this procedure.
The results of this three-year study found that the simple routine of
hand hygiene works in the prevention of hospital-transmitted MRSA
infections. The study found that MRSA infections at the medical center
declined by 49 percent. The study also proved the effectiveness of
implementing an ongoing, regimented campaign to actively engage
physicians and staff to create a meaningful behavior change with respect
to hygiene compliance. The program increased compliance amongst health
care workers from about 40 percent to more than 90 percent.
To view the abstract or purchase the full study please visit:
World Water Crisis Underlies World
Water experts from around the globe gathered
this week in Stockholm for World Water Week, an annual event coordinated
by the Stockholm International Water Institute. This year's conference
theme was "Progress and Prospects on Water: For a Clean and Healthy
World with Special Focus on Sanitation" to keep with the UN declaration
of 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation.
Experts at the opening session warned that the world's supplies of
clean, fresh water cannot sustain today's "profligate" use and
inadequate management, which have brought shrinking food supplies and
rising food costs to most countries. As developing countries confront
the first global food crisis since the 1970s as well as unprecedented
water scarcity, a new 53 city survey presented at the conference by the
International Water Management Institute indicates that 80 percent of
those studied are using untreated or partially treated wastewater for
In over 70 percent of the cities studied, more than half of urban
agricultural land is irrigated with wastewater that is either raw or
diluted in streams. Wastewater is most commonly used to produce
vegetables and cereals, especially rice, according to this and other
IWMI reports, raising concerns about health risks for consumers,
particularly when they eat uncooked vegetables.
Few developing countries have official, enforceable guidelines for the
use of wastewater in agriculture. As a result, though the practice may
be theoretically forbidden or controlled, it is in fact "unofficially
tolerated," the IWMI found.
The read the full article, please go to:
The Environment News Service
Cholera rears its ugly head in Zimbabwe - Ozone Disinfection is
MUSINA, SOUTH AFRICA —
Deadly cholera epidemics common more than a century ago have been
eliminated with modern water and wastewater treatment practices,
but it appears that the crumbling nation of Zimbabwe now has such an
outbreak and is exporting it to its African neighbors in places like
this border town, a November 26 Associated
Press story reports.
The United Nations
reported at least 366 cholera deaths in Zimbabwe since
August, the AP said. The disease has now spread to more than half of
that country and some of its victims there are crossing borders to find
treatment in neighboring Botswana and South
Cholera, an acute
diarrheal illness, is spread by drinking water or eating food
contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio
cholerae, according to the US
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Symptoms can be mild or severe, and some people not receiving treatment
can die within hours. The CDC adds that the disease is not likely to
spread from one person to another, and most people recover by drinking
or taking intravenously a rehydration solution made with clean water and
salts. With proper treatment, fewer than 1 percent of patients die, the
political and economic chaos in Zimbabwe under
dictator Robert Mugabe has led to the collapse of that nation’s water
treatment and health care systems, among other events, according to many
news reports. The AP reports doctors saying that hundreds of Zimbabweans
are dying of cholera at home and that 10 percent of Zimbabweans who
contract the disease there are dying.
Due to lack of
clean drinking water and the heavy rains now carrying raw sewage through
Zimbabwe’s streets and into fields and vegetable gardens, “There are
fears the worst is yet to come,” AP reporter Clare Nullis writes. Other
journalists have recently reported Zimbabweans having to subsist on
individual kernels of corn they pluck from road gravel.
Zimbabweans are leaving the country to receive treatment at hospitals or
makeshift clinics just across the border, such as those in Musina, the
article says. Doctors, international aid organizations and officials in
the neighboring nations say they are doing what they can and that more
medical supplies are urgently needed in Zimbabwe.
is now almost non-existent in the developed world, there continue to be
limited outbreaks, such as those recently in Vietnam, Laos, India and Afghanistan,
in places where there are breakdowns in sanitation or drinking water
New Strain of TB -
According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), a new and deadly strain of tuberculosis
has killed 52 of 53 people infected in the last year in South Africa.
The strain was discovered in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa,
and is classified as extremely drug-resistant. WHO reports that drugs
from two of the six second-line medicines that are routinely used as a
last line of defense against the disease have been ineffective against
the new strain.
Drug resistance is a
common problem in tuberculosis treatment; however this new strain
appears particularly virulent, according to health officials.
Tuberculosis is a
respiratory illness spread via aerosol droplets expelled by people with
active TB disease of the lungs when they cough or sneeze. Global health
estimates are that approximately 2 billion people worldwide have latent
and a partnership group including the South African Medical Research
Council and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
are convening this month in South Africa to discuss the new strain in
search of better ways to diagnose and treat it
If you have access to
power (even 12Volt) then ozone control of airborne virus is the most
effective (it’s far stronger/quicker than any other available means) and
is the healthiest
protective option for self and planet.
In the Swimming Poo..l
Almost Half of
Surveyed Americans Admit Unhygienic Pool Behavior
Do you know what’s in your public pool? Findings from a recent survey
show that when it comes to public pools this summer, watch thy fellow
swimmer closely! Rather than worry about the availability of lounge
chairs, lockers, and food and beverages, swimmers should be thinking
more about basic questions of pool water cleanliness.
According to a survey conducted by the Water Quality and Health Council,
84 percent of Americans believe their fellow swimmers participate in
unhygienic pool behavior – and they may be right. In fact, almost half
(47%) admit to one or more behaviors that contribute to an unhealthy
Urinating in the pool? One in five say they’ve done it (17 percent) –
and eight in ten (78 percent) are convinced their fellow swimmers are
guilty. As far as showering goes – forget it. Roughly one third (35
percent) pass the shower without stopping and three quarters (73%) say
their fellow swimmers fail to shower before swimming.
Why Worry? Despite strong doubts about their fellow swimmers, only a
third (36%) say pool water cleanliness is top of mind when they head to
the pool. At the same time, most (63%) are unaware of illnesses
associated with swallowing, breathing, or having contact with
contaminated pool water. In fact, less than one quarter consider the
frequency of pool cleaning and chemical treatment (23%) and even less
(16 %) think about chlorine levels to maintain clean pool water.
Unclean water can lead to recreational water illnesses (RWIs) –
diarrhea, respiratory illness, and ear and skin infections. Children,
pregnant women, and people with compromised immune systems can suffer
from more severe illness if infected. According to the CDC, these
illnesses are on the rise. Between 2005 and 2006, 78 outbreaks were
reported in 31 states –the largest number of outbreaks ever in a
two-year period. Close to 4,500 people were affected.
The Water Quality and Health Council urges summer swimmers to practice
swimming habits. Look for water that's clean, clear and blue. Check for
tiles that feel smooth and clean. Make sure there are no strong odors.
Listen for pool cleaning equipment. Using your senses, and following the
CDC’s six simple swimming steps will lead to a healthy and fun swimming
According to a report recently released by the World Health
Organization (WHO), the risk of avian flu (H5N1) spreading via public
drinking water and sewage systems is minimized, if not eliminated,
through basic disinfection practices. The document, Review of Latest
Available Evidence on Risks to Human Health through Potential
Transmission of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Through Water and Sewage,
examines the routes of entry of the avian influenza H5N1 virus into
water and sewage, the persistence of the virus in the environment, and
its possible routes of transmission to humans through water and sewage.
The risk associated with selected exposure scenarios is examined and
prevention and control measures, including chlorination and water
boiling, are suggested.
Based on case studies and research reviews, the WHO outlines four (4)
potential scenarios for environmental exposure to H5N1. They are:
- Consumption of virus-contaminated drinking
- Recreational use of contaminated water
- Exposure to contaminated sewage or surface
- Occupational exposure to infected animals or
The report concludes that water supplies receiving treatment as
recommended in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality are
considered unlikely to pose infection risk, even if infected waterfowl
are present in source waters.
Cited in the study is the fact that influenza viruses are susceptible
to disinfectants due to their structures. The introduction of
chlorination or alternative disinfectant residuals into water
distribution systems by authorities is considered necessary to managing
risk. Additionally, WHO advises that in individual households where
water safety is questionable, drinking water should undergo home
chlorination (addition of bleach) or boiling to deactivate the virus.
If you have access to power (even
12Volt) then ozone treatment is the most effective (it’s far
stronger/quicker) and healthiest option to avoid toxic affects of
For a full reading of the WHO study, please go to:
BOTTLED WATER IMPACTS
These figures for 2006 highlight the problems many associate with the
production of plastic bottles of water in the United States.
•More than 25.5 billion plastic water bottles are sold each year in the
•More than 17 million barrels of oil (not including fuel for
transportation) were used in plastic bottle production.
•Bottling water produced more than 2.5 million tons of carbon dioxide.
•It takes approximately 3 liters of water to produce 1 liter of bottled
•The total amount of energy used to produce, transport, refrigerate, and
dispose of a plastic bottle of water may be as high as the equivalent of
filling a 1 liter bottle one-quarter full of oil.
Source: Waste Management World, The Pacific Institute
The Bottle-Versus-the-Tap Debate
Consumers who spent $10 billion last year on bottled water think it's a
better bet. But is it?
By Sally Squires, Special to The Times
Quenching thirst can be
more complicated than taking a trip to the water fountain or turning on
the kitchen tap.
Hundreds of bottled waters are sold in the United States. Some are
touted to enhance athletic performance; others come flavored with fruit
essence or are vitamin-fortified. There's even water with enough added
caffeine to rival a strong cup of coffee. And for those who like exotic
sources, there's bottled water from Fiji and Iceland.
Americans are so eager to lap up bottled water that it's second only to
soft drinks as the leading beverage consumed in the United States,
according to the Beverage Marketing Corp. In 2005, we spent $10.1
billion to drink nearly 8 billion gallons of bottled water — that's 26
gallons per person — and per gallon paid more for water than for
So why ante up a buck or more for a bottle of water that costs less than
a penny per glass from the tap?
People drink bottled water "for quality, safety and good taste," says
Stephen Kay, vice president of communications at the International
Bottled Water Assn., a group representing bottlers and distributors.
"They're reaching for bottled water for hydration and refreshment."
Just don't count on any special health benefits. "There is no health
advantage being gained by these drinks, although the flavor can increase
your intake," says Scott Montain, a physiologist at the U.S. Army
Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Mass.
Nor has bottled water been proved to be safer than tap water, although
federal law requires it to be at least as safe. The Food and Drug
Administration regulates bottled water as a food product, dictating
ingredients, good manufacturing practices, labels and even official
definitions for spring, artesian, mineral and other types of water.
Various state regulations also apply to bottled water.
But a four-year study by the Natural Resources Defense Council, an
environmental advocacy group, found major regulatory gaps. By the
group's calculation, 60% to 70% of the bottled water sold in the United
States — including carbonated water, seltzer, club soda, tonic water as
well as flavored and fortified waters — is exempt from FDA bottled water
"Even when bottled waters are covered by FDA's specific bottled water
standards, those rules are weaker in many ways than EPA [Environmental
Protection Agency] rules that apply to big-city tap water," the group
Big-city tap water is not allowed to contain fecal coliform bacteria and
must be tested for these pathogens 100 times or more a month. But
bottled water plants face no such regulation from the FDA and are
required to test just once weekly. And while public water systems report
their test results, "none of the bottled water test results have to be
made public," says the Natural Resources Defense Council's Erik Olson.
The FDA examined the feasibility of asking bottled water companies to
provide test results to the public and concluded "that it wasn't
feasible," says the water association's Kay. But because bottled water
is an FDA-regulated product, Kay says that if a product was "out of
compliance it would not be available in the marketplace." Consumers who
want to see test results "can contact the company directly," Kay says.
Independent tests show that some bottled waters don't contain what they
claim. ConsumerLab.com analyzed four brands of vitamin water and found
that only one — Propel Fitness Water — provided the amount of vitamins
listed on its label.
From a body weight perspective, however, bottled water — or any water,
for that matter — has a caloric edge when poured against soft drinks,
sports drinks, juice and sweetened tea or coffee beverages.
University of North Carolina researchers have found that 20% of daily
calories consumed by those age 2 and older come from beverages, and
about half the excess calories consumed daily are from beverages, most
of them with added sugar. Consumption of sugared beverages has climbed
threefold from an average of 50 calories per day in 1977 to nearly 150
calories per day in 2001 — or enough to pile on about 15 pounds per
So water — bottled or from the tap — ranks as the drink of choice in a
new beverage guidance system developed at the university.
Here's what else you need to know about water:
• How much water daily? Women need about nine cups of liquid daily,
including drinking water, while men need about 13 cups. Coffee, tea,
other beverages and water-filled foods, including fruit, vegetables,
milk, soups and stews, can all count toward this total.
• Chilling improves taste. Whether you guzzle tap or bottled water,
drink it cold for improved flavor.
Tap & Bottled Water Wars
In the final analysis, the price is all that separates them
By Bruce Mohl, Globe Staff
Inside the chic
restaurant, Frederick A. Laskey was nervously pacing, wondering if he
had made a mistake in coming.
The executive director of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority
had boasted that the ozone-infused tap water his agency had just started
producing was every bit as good as the expensive bottled waters
Americans are expected to spend $10 billion on this year.
But now his tough talk was being put to the test. The Globe was doing a
lab analysis and a taste test comparing bottled and tap waters. Laskey,
reluctantly, had agreed to participate in the blind taste test, but he
acknowledged he was worried the test could end up embarrassing him.
Laskey confessed to his fellow tasters -- Jim Koch, brewer and founder
of Boston Beer Co., the maker of Samuel Adams beer; Geoffrey Fallon, the
sommelier at Les Zygomates Wine Bar & Bistro; and John McNabb, the
research director at the environmental group Clean Water Action -- that
his palate wasn't very sophisticated. ''I often drink wine with ice
cubes," he said.
Koch looked up in mock horror. ''Don't tell me you drink light beer on
the rocks," he said.
The taste-testers went to work, swirling the waters in their glasses,
sloshing them around in their mouths, smelling them for odor, and
holding them up to the light for inspection.
But no matter how hard they tried, the testers failed to detect any
significant difference between the bottled and tap waters. The bottled
waters came from as far away as the South Pacific island of Fiji and
ranged in price from 79 cents to $6.82 a gallon. The MWRA water came
straight out of a Milton tap or the public drinking fountain at the John
F. Kennedy Library in Dorchester and cost a half-cent a gallon.
''The differences were very slight, certainly not worth paying money
for," Koch said.
Fallon, whose restaurant was hosting the taste test, gave a hesitant
thumbs up to bottles A and C, which were the Fiji bottled water and
Milton tap water. He gave an equivocal thumbs down to bottle D, which
was Aquafina. PepsiCo Inc.'s Aquafina is water from the Ayer Water
Department that is run through a rigorous purification process that
includes adding the same ozone the MWRA is using.
Ozone, essentially electrified oxygen, destroys bacteria cells and also
breaks down organic material that can affect the color and taste of
water. By using ozone, the MWRA has been able to curb its use of
chlorine and ammonia as primary disinfectants, although chlorine is
still used as a secondary disinfectant as water travels through pipes to
homes and businesses.
Swishing one of the water samples around in his mouth, Fallon said he
thought he detected a slight nut flavor in bottle D (Aquafina) and a bit
of an aftertaste in bottle B (Acadia spring water from Miscoe Springs in
Mendon, which is sold by Stop & Shop). He said whatever differences
existed were minor, if they existed at all.
''The differences I found could be there or they could totally not be
there," Fallon said. ''Water is the purest of canvases that anything
McNabb said he thought he detected a hint of chlorine in the Acadia
spring water. ''There were very slight differences, if at all, between
the waters," he said. ''I wondered if I might be imagining them."
He probably was, since a lab test showed no chlorine residue in the
Laskey breathed a sigh of relief as the other taste testers, even those
with more sophisticated palates than his, agreed that there was
essentially no difference between bottled and tap water. ''It's
reassuring," he said.
The Globe's lab tests, conducted by GeoLabs Inc. in Braintree and G&L
Laboratories in Quincy, indicated there were some differences between
the bottled and tap waters, but the differences in most cases were
The chief exception was a background bacteria test that found unusually
high levels in the Fiji bottled water.
None of the five waters tested showed any trace of coliform bacteria,
which can be an indicator of E. coli. But a heterotrophic plate count
test, which indicates whether conditions are ripe for bacteria growth,
showed Fiji water with an estimated 1,800 colony-forming units per
milliliter. The recommended maximum is 500 colony-forming units.
Paul Tierney, director of the food protection program at the state
Department of Public Health, said the higher level does not necessarily
indicate a health risk, but possibly a sanitation problem at the
bottling plant. He said tests by his agency have found levels as high as
2,500 in some bottled waters.
Heterotrophic plate count levels are sometimes higher in bottled waters
that are not disinfected and exposed to higher temperatures before
Officials at Fiji water could not be reached for comment. The lab
officials who conducted the tests for the Globe said they were confident
of the results.
The three bottled waters -- Fiji, the Stop & Shop Acadia water, and
Aquafina -- had no lead or residual chlorine. The tap waters from Milton
and the JFK Library had trace amounts of both substances, but nothing of
The tap waters also had more sodium than the bottled waters, just over
30 milligrams per liter. By contrast, the Stop & Shop Acadia water had
27.8 milligrams, the Fiji water had 18.5 milligrams, and Aquafina had
just 1.13 milligrams.
State health officials recommend no more than 20 milligrams of sodium
per liter, but the officials noted that water is usually not a major
source of sodium in a person's diet.
One area where the bottled and tap waters differed sharply was price.
The MWRA, which is essentially a wholesaler of water to nearly 60
Eastern Massachusetts cities and towns, charges the municipalities
approximately two-tenths of a cent per gallon.
The prices charged to consumers by cities and towns vary. In Milton, the
price is about a half-cent per gallon and in Boston it's roughly
four-tenths of a cent per gallon.
The cheapest bottled water in the Globe's sample was the gallon jug of
Acadia water from Stop & Shop, which sells for 79 cents. A 1.5-liter
bottle of Fiji water sold for $2.29 at Stop & Shop, which works out to
$5.77 a gallon.
The most expensive water in the Globe's sample was Aquafina. A
1.05-liter bottle sold for $1.79 at Stop & Shop, which works out to
about $6.82 a gallon.